As a rule, after having legally resided in the Netherlands with a residence permit for five years (without “gaps” in their legal residence), non-EU citizens become eligible for various sorts of residence permits by which they become no longer dependent on a Dutch family member, an employer, or their own business, and also gain more rights to equal treatment with Dutch citizens. The strongest and most unconditional immigration status is the residence permit as a “long-term resident”, which also gives the holder certain rights in most other EU countries.
But persons who are ineligible for a long-term resident permit after five years (for instance, because they resided in the Netherlands for a number of years with a temporary immigration status such as study) can be eligible for a “Dutch” permanent residence permit.
And persons who have had a residence permit for staying with a family member for five years can qualify for a “humanitarian non-temporary” residence permit, without having to satisfy any income requirement (for citizens of Turkey, after three years, with additionally no requirement to pass the civic integration exam; and victims of domestic violence can also qualify for a “humanitarian non-temporary” residence permit).
For those who have not yet passed the civic integration exam, but who has had a residence permit for the purpose of work (as a “highly skilled migrant”, or for general employment or self-employment) for five years (three years for citizens of Turkey), there is also the possibility to gain freedom on the Dutch employment market, and no longer be dependent on one (high paying) employer.